The number of French optical shops that went through receivership or bankruptcy proceedings increased for the third consecutive year, although at a slightly slower pace with a 2.7% rise in 2017 against 5.7% and 15.4% in 2016 and 2015 respectively. However, according to a research published by KPMG last year and quoted by the French trade magazine Bien Vu, the average gross margin of French opticians remained stable in 2016 at a relatively high level of 63.9%. By product category, the gross margin for optical glasses reached 65.4%, down by one percentage point as compared to 2015, against 40.7% for sunglasses and 34.9% for contact lenses, respectively down by four and five points. The average EBIT margin of French optical stores was calculated at 14.8% of revenues.